Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, a bookish professor of rhetoric astatine Bowdoin College in Maine who became nan Union's astir celebrated combat leader of nan Civil War, died connected this time successful history, Feb. 24, 1914.
Brig. Gen. Chamberlain was 85 years old.
"A veritable icon of Civil War legend, Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain is champion known for his heroic participation successful nan Battle of Gettysburg," writes nan American Battlefield Trust.
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"Prolific and prosaic passim his life, Chamberlain spent his twilight years penning and speaking astir nan war."
His decease was attributed astatine slightest partially to immoderate of nan unthinkable six wounds he suffered and survived successful conflict 50 years earlier.
Studio image of General Joshua Chamberlain, a national serviceman during nan American Civil War. Chamberlain won nan Medal of Honor for his heroism while commanding nan 20th Maine Infantry during nan defense of Little Round Top astatine nan Battle of Gettysburg. (CORBIS/Corbis via Getty Images)
His expertise to proceed fighting contempt galore wounds, successful an era successful which whiskey and amputations were communal treatments successful battlefield medicine, was among his galore singular successes arsenic soldier.
Chamberlain is nan past Civil War worker to dice of injuries suffered successful combat, according to nan Department of nan Defense.
He was "a veritable icon of Civil War legend." — American Battlefield Trust
Colonel Chamberlain earned nan Medal of Honor for his heroic activity of nan 20th Maine Infantry astatine Gettysburg.
He later had nan grant of accepting General Robert E. Lee's surrender astatine Appomattox.
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He served 4 position arsenic politician of Maine, wrote a powerful chronicle of nan past months of nan war, "The Passing of nan Armies," and returned to academia, spending 12 years arsenic president of Bowdoin.
Chamberlain's fable was forged connected Little Round Top, connected nan acold near flank of nan immense Union service astatine Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, connected July 2, 1863.
An American emblem that flew complete a guidelines successful Iraq, and a image of Union Civil War General Joshua Chamberlain, are among nan patriotic touches that statement nan walls of nan Freedom General Store successful Freedom connected June 30, 2014. (Gabe Souza/Portland Portland Press Herald via Getty Images)
Chamberlain's 20th Maine repelled galore Confederate charges but ran retired of ammunition.
He could not retreat and he could not surrender — aliases nan rebels mightiness rotation up nan full Union statement and perchance triumph nan warfare pinch a stunning triumph successful nan bluish state.
Chamberlain responded pinch a melodramatic bayonet complaint down nan hill, a turning constituent successful American history that was immortalized successful nan Pulitzer Prize-winning 1974 humanities novel "The Killer Angels" by Michael Shaara and again successful nan 1993 movie, "Gettysburg."
"Chamberlain raised his saber, fto loose nan top sound he could make, boiling nan sound up from his chest." — Michael Shaara
"Chamberlain raised his saber, fto loose nan top sound he could make, boiling nan sound up from his chest," Shaara wrote successful nan dramatized relationship of nan historically meticulous encounter.
"Fix bayonets! Charge! Fix bayonets! Charge! Fix bayonets! Charge! He leaped down from nan boulder, still screaming, his sound opening to ace and give, and each astir him his men were roaring animal screams," wrote Shaara.
"He saw nan full regiment rising and pouring complete nan wall, and opening to bound down done nan acheronian bushes, complete nan dormant and dying and wounded, hats coming off, hairsbreadth flying, mouths making sounds, 1 man firing arsenic he ran, nan past bullet, nan past round."
General Robert Lee surrendering to General Ulysses Grant astatine Appomattox, connected April 9, 1865, American Civil War, 19th century. General Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain ordered Union troops to salute nan Confederate troops to statesman nan process of treatment nan nation. (Getty Images)
The frenzied complaint swept distant 4 Confederate regiments. About 2,000 men were killed, wounded, surrendered aliases retreated.
The rebel service mislaid nan conflict nan pursuing day, pinch nan heroic but ill-fated disaster of Pickett's Charge.
Chamberlain's beautifully written work, "The Passing of the Armies," published posthumously successful 1915, serves arsenic a instauration of danasiwa of nan last twelvemonth of nan Civil War and offers sobering penetration into of nan minds of men successful combat.
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"The hammering business had been difficult connected nan hammer," he wrote of nan tragic Union casualties suffered while trying to lb nan Confederates into conclusion astatine Petersburg successful nan last months of nan war.
Chamberlain was later fixed nan work of accepting General Lee's surrender astatine Appomattox, adding to his fable among Civil War soldiers.
"Grant wished nan ceremonial to beryllium arsenic elemental arsenic possible, and that thing should beryllium done to humiliate nan manhood of nan confederate soldiers," Chamberlain wrote successful "The Passing of nan Armies."
Portrait of General Joshua L. Chamberlain, 1908, Joseph B. Kahill, pastel connected paper/pastel board, 29 3/8 in. x 22 1/16 in. (74.61 cm x 56.04 cm). (Sepia Times/Universal Images Group via Getty Images)
He ordered his columns to salute nan defeated Confederate troops — helping group nan reside of nan bid successful Lincoln’s stated dream "with malice toward nary and kindness toward all."
"It was not a 'present arms,' nevertheless … which past arsenic now was nan highest imaginable grant to beryllium paid moreover to a president," Chamberlain later said.
"It was nan 'carry arms,' arsenic it was past known, pinch musket held by nan correct manus and perpendicular to nan shoulder."
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"Throughout nan war, Chamberlain was wounded six times, astir grievously astatine Petersburg successful June 1864," writes American Battlefield Trust.
"Believing this coiled to beryllium mortal, Congress promoted Chamberlain to nan rank of brigadier general. Chamberlain, however, would past nan wound, and return to nan beforehand successful clip to play a pivotal domiciled successful nan Appomattox Campaign."
"Grant wished … that thing should beryllium done to humiliate nan manhood of nan Southern soldiers." — Chamberlain connected extremity of war
His achievements pinch both beard and quill make him 1 of nan astir singular soldiers successful American history.
"Our spot successful quality brotherhood, our work not only successful work for country, but arsenic portion of its very being, came into view," he wrote of serving nan federation successful wartime.
Pickett's Charge, Battle of Gettysburg, Civil War, 1863. The ill-fated complaint came nan time aft nan Confederate nonaccomplishment to move nan 20th Maine Infantry disconnected Little Round Top astatine nan acold confederate extremity of nan battlefield. (Universal History Archive/Universal Images Group via Getty Images)
His fable was cemented successful that decisive infinitesimal of action connected July 2, 1863, for which he was awarded nan nation's highest grant for valor.
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Some historians reason that nan heroic Chamberlain not only saved nan Union service astatine Little Round Top, but saved nan origin of nan Union itself.
"The regiment’s sudden, hopeless bayonet complaint blunted nan Confederate battle connected Little Round Top and has been credited pinch redeeming Major General George Gordon Meade’s Army of nan Potomac, winning nan Battle of Gettysburg and mounting nan South connected a long, irreversible way to defeat," reports American Battlefield Trust.
Kerry J. Byrne is simply a manner newsman pinch Fox News Digital.